Monday August 1, 2016 Harrison Plaza 11 AM to 3 PM
The Miami River Streamkeepers Society and the Village of Harrison Hot Springs hosted a Healthy Environment Day on Monday, August 1st, 2016 from 11 AM to 3 PM in the Harrison Lake Plaza.
Harrison Hot Springs boasts more than its share of beautiful natural areas with lake, forest and river environments. Through the work of the Village, local businesses and volunteer environmental groups Harrison Hot Springs has groomed trails, maintained riparian strips and interpretive signs. No less than 3000 trees and shrubs have been installed along the river since 2006.
Keeping this environment healthy is challenging. Invasive species, high public use, domestic pets, garbage and green waste dumping all take their toll.
People were intrigued by the live turtles at the Western Painted Turtle Recovery Project booth.There was also much interest in the WildSafeBC bear hide, Miami River Streamkeepers Society’s invasive plant bouquet, the South Coast Conservation’s species at risk puzzles and Birch Grove’s native plant display. The photos show the turtle booth and Tiffany Knight with plants grown at her local Birch Grove Nursery on Striker’s Crescent, Agassiz.
Tiffany Knight of Birch Grove Nursery showed the public the beautiful choices native riparian plants offer. After the event, Birch Grove gifted the plants to the other exhibitors and, by free draw, to six members of the public.
Mike Pearson, a member of the MRSS, lead two public nature walks of the Greenway that were enjoyed by a dozen participants.
Both the Village and the Streamkeepers say “thank you” to all the exhibitors
CANCELLED Saturday Sept. 24, 2016 Harrison Lake Plaza 10 a.m. to noon.
The Miami River Streamkeepers Society regrets they are unable to host the Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup this year due to unforeseen circumstances. We hope to be back in 2017.
The Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup is a grassroots direct action conservation program supported by the Vancouver Aquarium that takes place all across Canada during the month of September. It is a participant-driven event whereby volunteers, such as our group, register to coordinate shoreline clean-up events in their local community. For more information on this national initiative, please visit the program website at www.shorelinecleanup.ca.
MRSS work weekly on the Greenway section of the river. We target specific areas monitoring native plants and removing invasive plants. We meet Mondays (weather permitting/ not holiday Mondays) at 327 Miami River Drive @ 10 AM. Tools, Vests and Gloves Provided. Everyone welcome.
Fraser Valley Bald Eagle Festival – November 21 & 22, 2015
The MRSS hosts an informational booth at the Exhibitor’s Fair at Leq’a:mel Hall the first weekend of the festival. The Chehalis flats and the Harrison River are renown in late autumn for the world’s largest congregation of bald eagles and BC’s biggest run of Chum salmon . Events run over four weekends. Go to www.fvbef.ca for more information.
PACIFIC SALMON FOUNDATION – COMMUNITY SALMON PROGRAM
Grant Value: $6532.00
Project Value: $29,857.00
Start Date: July 2014
End Date: Spring 2015
Pacific Salmon Foundation, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Village of Harrison Hot Springs, Harrison Hot Springs Communities in Bloom Committee, Fraser Valley Watersheds Coalition, Fraser Valley Invasive Plant Council, Miama Place, River Wynd Strata Corporation, Harrison Elementary School, Harrison Hot Springs Preschool & Childcare, Friends of the Harrison Forest
o Skoda Property planting October 7, 2013 – 4 MRSS members, 3 FVWC crew, & Martin Skoda / very rainy / 52 native shrubs installed
o October 11, 2013 – 10- “volunteer native plants”(potted & tended from Summer 2012 at Perrin’s) planted in 300 block by Janne
o April 15, 2014 – Karl Perrin donated and planted eight native shrubs in 200 & 300-block (one shrub subsequently removed & relocated by homeowner)
o June 23, 2014 – Rachel Drennan, FVWC coordinator, and Janne Perrin prepare plant list for PSF/CSP Grant Fall planting
o September 29, 2014 – plant 100 aquatic plants / MRSS members with the assistance of Karl Perrin’s Gardeners at Large Crew / purchased with PSF/CSP 2014 Grant funds
· HABITAT ENCROACHMENT
o December 9, 2013 Letter to James Weger, EFV Community Advisor re habitat destruction
o August 2014 – Letter to VHHS Bylaw Officer regarding concerns. Advised VHHS Riparian Bylaw only covers new development and to contact the Province. Conservation Officer followed up on concerns with home-owners
· DFO ADVISOR
o May 22 2014 – DFO appoints Bob Schaefer as CA for South Fraser Area & Eastern Fraser Valley, replacing James Weger
· PUBLIC EDUCATION:
o Great Canadian Shoreline Clean Up September 29, 2013 – 16 people / VHHS loaned row boat for river use from Maple St. Canoe Launch to Ruth Altendorf Bridge / Laura Chappell with WildSafeBC & MRSS at plaza but too windy for display boards / 34 kg (75 lbs) trash collected / VHHS supplies bags, pickers, tables & tent / pre & post articles submitted by Janne Perrin published in Agassiz Observer September 27 & October 4th
o November 16th & 17th Booth at Fraser Valley Eagle Festival
o March 27, 2014 – large map of Miami River and large “living by water” posters laminated by Staples
o March 29, 2014 – participated in Harrison Health & Wellness Fair at Memorial Hall
o April 22, 2014 – participated in United Church Earth Day celebration
o June 2, 2014 – 7-minute PowerPoint presentation to VHHS Council / well received
o July 16, 2014 – Janne led Communities in Bloom judges in tour along the 300-block of the Greenway trail. Door hanger packages were given to judges
o September 27 2014 – Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup / MRSS hosts public cleanup of Harrison foreshore, lagoon and Miami River / article & photo published in A-H Observer prior to event/ 20 people registered / one boat and 2 kayaks worked in river / member of Harrison Yacht Club interested in participating in 2015/ 82 people visited WildSafeBC booth / 26 kg trash collected / VHHS delivered tables etc / Gardeners At Large returned materials & trash to VHHS works yard
·PACIFIC SALMON FOUNDATION / COMMUNITY SALMON PROGRAM GRANT
o January 13 to February 6, 2014 worked on an application to PSF/CSP Grant for Miami River Greenway project 2
o February 6, 2014 Submit Application
TOTAL BUDGET REQUESTED FROM PSF $8,056.50
TOTAL OTHER $/IN-KIND (Leveraging) $20,025.00
TOTAL PROJECT COST (PSF & Leveraging)$28,081.50
o OBJECTIVES (Results) for grant:
§ Restore & Enhance 1000 square metres of Greenway stream bank
§ Install a minimum of 2 interpretive signs
§ Conduct a fish survey, monitor water quality & release salmon fry from Salmonids in the Classroom Program
o Project Partners – Fraser Valley Watershed Coalition, Fraser Valley Invasive Plant Council, Village of Harrison Hot Springs, Communities In Bloom, Harrison Elementary School, Miama Place, Sts’ailes Aboriginal Rights and Title Branch, Harrison Hot Springs Preschool & Child Care, Riverwynd Strata & Friends of the Harrison Forest
o April 9, 2014 -CSP 14S 084 PSF grant $6534 awarded to MRSS / fish survey not funded, FVWC restoration crew not funded (FVWC notified us in June they’ll donate all crew services & willow whips as inkind), office supplies not funded / 3 interpretive signs funded by PSF (one to be donated by Miama Place) / Total Value of Project now estimated at $26 984
o July 7, 2014 – Stormdrain marking and Educational Door hangers along Miami River Drive with help of Harrison Hot Springs Child Care children / photos & article published in Agassiz-Harrison Observer
o July 14, 2014 – PSF/CSP grant cheque for $6 534 received
o July 16, 3014– Fall Public Planting date Monday, November 3, 2014 agreed upon by FVWC, VHHS and MRSS
o August 11, 2014 – Chiller unit for Salmon in the Classroom Project with Ms Emsley’s Class / $1 141.91 total cost including shipping / Funded by 2014 PSF/CSP grant
o August 12 Chiller Unit arrived at Chilliwack Greyhound Depot and picked up by Janne for storage at her home until fall
o August 22, 2014- 200 copies of Salmon Steward magazine arrive by post — to be given to the Harrison Elementary School for distribution
o August 29, 2014 – dialogue with VHHS, Miama Place (Martin Skoda), biologist Jill Miners, Allan Jackson & Jane Kivett of CIB on design of 4 Interpretive Signs for Greenway
o Late August / Early September – Japanese Knotweed Treatment completed by Drinkwater Environmental Services under contract to Fraser Valley Invasive Plant Council / two queries from public in response to signage
o September 26, 2014 – Janne visits Ms Emsley at HES with instructions for Salmonids in the Classroom / current classroom theme of spawning salmon / Salmon Steward magazine and Chiller Unit to be delivered soon
· NEW WEIR INSTALED VHHS
o March 28, 2014 – weir to protect sewer pipe crossing at Hot Springs Road Bridge supported by MRSS member & Biologist Ted Burns
· GRANTS TO GROUPS FROM VHHS
o November 2013 –Apply for $840.00 from Grants to Groups
o May 26, 2014 – letter from VHHS re: approved for $600 grants to groups grant / Thank you letter sent to VHHS
· WALK & WEED –
o 114 volunteer hours of Restoration area (Greenway & Cedar Ave) weeding
o September 7, 2013 to September 30, 2014 / total of 36 sessions
· WATER QUALITY TESTING (WQT), Water Quality Equipment Maintenance & Data Entry (Excel & MRSS Website)
o 26 volunteer hours
o Water Quality Testing – Nov. 24-25, 2013, May 19, 2014 & Aug.18, 2014
o Water Quality Index- Acceptable in November & May / Marginal in August
o www.miamiriverstreamkeepers.9k.com / A free site
o Webmaster Janne Perrin / 10 volunteer hours
· BOARD OF DIRECTOR’S MEETINGS
o 9 meeting held from December 2013 to August 2014 / 49 volunteer hours
o August 8, 2014 – AGM set for October 4, 2014 at 10 AM at Riverwynd
o August 2014 – Account opened Agassiz Prospera Credit Union / Signers any 2 of Janne Perrin, Barb Dramer or Mary Baxter / no service charges, subject to annual review
o September 2014 – Bank of Montreal Account Closed as service fees instated
· HARRISON SALMON STRONGHOLD /Sts’ailes Fishers Collaboration
o March 2014 – MRSkS invited to become a member of this group / Janne attends March 7, May 7 and June 18 meeting on our behalf
o Jane Kivett, MRSS & CIB member attends September 10, 2014 “Special Introductory Session for BC MLA’s” meeting / slides of MRSS activities submitted for PowerPoint Show to delegates
· TOTAL VOLUNTEER HOURS RECORDED – Sept. 7 2013 to Sept. 28 2014 / 765 hours
o Value $ 12,122,00 includes work of MRSS members, partners, and public volunteers
PACIFIC SALMON FOUNDATION / COMMUNITY SALMON PROGRAM
Project Number CSP- 12S 037
|Project Title||Miami River Greenway Restoration|
|Project Type||Habitat Rehabilitation|
|Organization||Miami River Streamkeepers Society|
|Grant Amount||$ 3,095.00|
|Total Project Value||$ 18,845.83|
|Stream and Receiving Waters Name||Miami River|
|Nearest Town/City||Harrison Hot Springs|
|Target Salmonid Species||Coho / Cutthroat|
MRSkS = Miami River Streamkeepers Society
VHHS = Village of Harrison Hot Springs
CIB = VHHS’s Communities in Bloom Committee
FVWC = Fraser Valley Watersheds Coalition
FVIPC = Fraser Valley Invasive Plant Council
FHF = Friends of the Harrison forest
The Miami Streamkeepers conducted riparian rehabilitation along the Miami River greenway to maintain habitat and ecosystem integrity for both salmonids and other species. The project was a continuation of previous restoration of the greenway done with an Environmental Damages Grant in 2010 / 11. Public Education through 4 community events was completed.
Please describe accurately your project and identify what you did or not do as compared to your application summary:
A total of 417 native shrubs were planted and our weekly “walk & weed” work parties removed invasive species.
Informational door hangers were distributed to homeowners along the river and all storm drains in Harrison Hot Springs were marked. We attended Harrison Festival Children’s’ Day and hosted a Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup. Water quality testing was done in March & August 2012 & February, June & July 2013. (See DATA sheet)
Standard planting procedures were used. Native shrubs and trees were purchased from a local nursery. Plants were matched to their preferred habitat e.g. habitat e.g. Hardhack and Red Osier Dogwood were planted on lower parts of the bank and Pacific Ninebark and thimbleberry were planted near the top of bank as they cannot tolerate conditions that are too wet. Water plants –slough sedge and hard-stemmed bulrush- were planted at river’s edge in 5 places. Plant survival rate was used to indicate success.
Problems and how they were solved
Ongoing volunteer help is tricky. We developed a website this year and send out a weekly reminder to our Streamkeepers membership to attend volunteer events – especially our Monday 10 AM walk and weed session. Keeping all sections of the new plantings along the greenway weed free is a challenge. In July 2013 we find reed canary grass, black walnut, bind weed and ivy overgrowing shrubs installed in October 2012. Mature Black Walnuts on private land adjacent to the greenway inhibit growth of native shrubs installed resulting in the loss of 4-shrubs. Geese feeding by residents is also problematic. Property owners are fond of their trees/geese and a solution is not easy. Japanese knotweed treated in September 2010 by the Fraser Valley Invasive Plant Council continues and vigilant weeding is needed for the native shrubs to thrive. Networking with the local CIB and continued volunteerism by the MRSkS members’ helps. Restoration projects need long term, intensive summer weeding. Is there a grant that would cover hiring a pair of students to do such work next summer?
Unexpected Outcomes, such as new relationships, new volunteers, beavers moved in etc
For our storm drain marking project the local daycare children helped us. They hung the door hangers on all homeowner’s doors who back the Miami River over a 2-day blitz. The local Communities in Bloom Committee stepped up to help with Storm drain Marking, Children’s Day, the Great Canadian Shoreline cleanup and frequently for our weekly “walk & weed” For the Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup we had the local Bear Aware coordinator come out with a booth. In November of 2012 we participated in the Harrison Bald Eagle Festival using the tri-fold display we constructed in June of 2012. The tri-fold also advertised our PSF CSP project at SEP “Ugly Bug Ball” on June 23rd. We were invited in November 2012 by the BC Chapter – Society for
Ecological Restoration to walk some of their AGM delegates along our project. We didn’t need the beaver guard wire as no beavers came “a cuttin’” but we keep it in case. We were invited to participate in the Canada Day Parade by the Mayor. At this event we distributed educational materials on streamside living, bear safe and invasive plants.
Timing: did it take more or less time than anticipated?
We had planned to plant in November 2012 but in reality we planted on October 17 and 18th
as the weather was cool and damp. Administration of the project by the MRSkS took over 3 times more hours than we anticipated. Of course we are volunteers not professionals but we were surprised when we tallied up and that tally often doesn’t include emails and phone calls that one forgets to enter. As we put together the final report we discovered that meeting, communications and publishing were a different category of in-kind and found we had spent 83.75 hours. Monitoring and maintenance also took far more hours than we thought. We anticipated 250 hours for the project and to date have done almost twice that many.
Budget: over, under?
We stayed within budget. We had a few dollars left over after our initial October community planting that we used to purchase 22 sword ferns and 10 hard stemmed cattails and 4 slough sedges that we planted in November 2012. For in-kind support the FVWC needed less hours to fulfill their part of the
Project. The FVIPC also needed 2-fewer hours for their obligations. On the other hand both the MRSkS and CIB groups gave more hours than budgeted. CIB more than doubled their contribution while the MRSkS contributed 2.3X more hours than budgeted.
Recommendations for future work
Invasive weed control is an ongoing task. No matter how much effort we put in there are always more blackberries, Himalayan balsam, black walnuts, English ivy and lamia to weed. Ongoing maintenance is mandatory for a restoration project to be successful. Public education is also on going. Encouraging people to stay on the trail, curbside their green waste, pick up their garbage, leash their dogs and keep cats indoors is never ending. Interpretive signs for the greenway restoration project would help in this regard. As an unexpected part of this project, MRSkS and CIB prepared a PowerPoint Presentation requesting two signs – Value of Riparian Area & The Importance of Biodiversity- immediately and several more in the future to be given at the August 12th, 2013 Village of HHS Council Meeting.
Please describe how you met or exceeded your objectives as compared to your application for funding, describe unintended outcomes. Describe where you did not meet your objectives.
Result #1 Riparian Planting And Invasive Plant Removal – 846 m2 of streamside was planted with 417 native plants with the removal of up to 846 m2 of invasive plants (Fall 2012).
Result #2 To promote community awareness of invasive species, native plants and living responsibly near riparian areas. In Summer 2012 with finish up in Spring 2013 we marked all storm drains within the Village of Harrison. Door hangers were placed on all residences doors along Miami River Drive & Naismith Avenue. Approximately 72 residences, as these properties back upon the Miami River.
Result #3 Monitoring and Maintenance – Removal of encroaching invasive plants was conducted every week for about two hours by a team of two to five Streamkeepers. Native plant’s survival was be monitored. This monitoring is ongoing. Thirty-six water plants were installed – hard-stemmed bulrush & slough sledge. We await the end of high water to see how they survived. Of the other 381 plants installed 98% have survived.
Result # 4 Education of local residents, visitors & their children on the biodiversity of the Miami Creek Watershed and the dangers of invasive species and garbage. Participation in four (4) community events: Harrison Festival of the Arts Children’s Day booth (July 11,2012), Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup Harrison Foreshore and lagoon coordination (September 15, 2012) and Public Plantings October 17 & 18, 2012.
Please list all Federal, First Nations, Provincial, Regional and Municipal government employees involvement in your project.
DFO – Eastern Fraser Valley Community Advisor Mark Johnson offered advice, monitored our progress and came to plantings
Sts’ailes Aboriginal Title & Rights – Placed notices in their band newsletter advertising our activities and encouraging band members to take part. They wrote us a letter of support for the initial application
Village of Harrison Hot Springs – Parks, Trails & Horticultural Technician, Teresa Baxter and her crew helped with planting layout and planting the shrubs and trees. The Mayor provided us with a letter of support for our application. VHHS’s Communities in Bloom Committee partnered with us extensively for planting, monitoring and weeding.
PROJECT SUMMARY STATISTICS
The statistics you provide will help us to determine the specific and overall achievements of your project and the Community Salmon Program and will be made available to interested individuals and organizations.
Quantifiable Results (Important these are a measurement of your project’s success)
Habitat Rehabilitation Projects
|Riparian Restoration||Area replanted||
|Number of trees/shrubs planted 417||
Education, Public Awareness, Stewardship, Community Planning, Volunteer Training Projects
Targets Audience (check all that apply) Number of participants
Grade K-12 Y 100+ at 2012 Harrison Arts Festival Children’s Day
Post Secondary Y ____some at Children’s Day ________
Education and Awareness Y Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup/ Children’s Day/ Planting Sessions & Door Hanger recipients
Landowners Contact Y _____15______
Volunteers Trained Y _____11 _______
Public presentations Y ______4______
Community Planning Y Village of Harrison Hot Springs Horticulture Staff
Other (specify) _____________
Please indicate which communications tools were used to highlight the project (check all that apply):
PSF sign and decals ___ Newspaper/ media releases __X_ Brochure _X__
Website _X__ Media interview ___
Volunteers (Important: this is a measurement of your project’s success)
|Total number of volunteersinvolved in this project||30||Total number of volunteer hoursin this project||862.5 to July 29 2013|
Total number of persons trained (staff and volunteers) __20__
Please attach additional documentation to illustrate your project’s results.
Photos: Photos of before, during and after projects are required. By providing these you grant permission to PSF to reproduce or publish these photos; therefore, care should be taken to ensure all identifiable persons in photos are aware of this. Please provide photographers name if photo credit is desired.
Generic photo consent form is available at www.psf.ca and is to be retained by your organization.
Documentation attached (check all that apply):
Maps _X__ Brochure __X_ Photos _X__ News clippings _X__ Data Report _X__
Other (specify) ______Volunteer hour’s _X_ __ Accounting Hours & $ ___X___
STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES
Please provide a detailed financial statement of project and PSF grant expenditures
Attach original receipts and invoices to this Final Report for PSF funded expenditures.
OTHER CASH ($)
|Materials, Supplies, Equipment, Repairs, Maintenance, Transportation, Travel, Capital, Other|
|Chestwaders (4 sets)||
|Chestwader cleaning kits (to reduce any chance of chitrid, or spread of invasive species).||
|Backpack to transport materials and equipment.||
|Native Plants (846m2 area, 417 plants).k to transport materials and equipment. of chitrid, or spread of invasive species). the watercourse, will be placed.nts w||
|Native Plant guards (beaver guards and vole guards)Beaver GuardsVole Guards||
|Volunteer Labour: Professional Fees, Project Coordination, Technicians Consultants, Labourers, Other|
|Volunteer Labour / Project Coordination Miami Streamkeepers 460 hrs @ $15 / hr||
|Volunteer Supervisor / coordinator FVWC 42 hrs @ $25 / hr||
|Volunteer Labour FVWC members 4 hrs @ $15 / hr||
|Services and Skilled Volunteer Labor Village of Harrison 33 hrs @ $25/hr||
|Volunteer Labour Communities in Bloom 75 hrs @ $15/hr1 @ $25/ hr||
|Volunteer Services FVIPC 10 hrs @ $25 / hr||
|Volunteer Consulting DFO Community Advisor 2.5 hrs @ $25/hr||
|Volunteer Labour Harrison Day Care 12.5 hrs @ $15||
|TRAINING, meetings, communications, publishing, printing other costs|
|MRSk’s Pamphlets MRSk||
|MRSkS Meeting, Communications 83.75 hrs @ $15 /hr||
|MRSk’s Pamphlets PSF/CSP||
|Educational Materials FVIPC||
|Educational Materials DFO Community Advisor “Streamside Living”||
|Educational Materials Conservation Officer Service “Bear Safe”||
|Advertising Sts’ailes Aboriginal Title & Rights / Support Letter||
|Support Letter Friends of the Harrison Forest||
|FVWC Food for Volunteers FVWC||
|Administration MRSK 133.75 hrs @ $15/hr||
|Purchase Insurance for Miami River Streamkeepers Society||
|A. TOTAL PSF CSP EXPENDITURES||
|B. TOTAL OTHER||
|C. TOTAL IN-KIND||
|D TOTAL PROJECT COST A+B+C||
|E PSF CSP GRANT||
|LESS TOTAL PSF CSP EXPENDITURES A||$3038.63|
|OUTSTANDING GRANT TO BE RETURNED TO PSF||
Other Contributors – Number of Contributors and Supporters of this Project:
(Important: this is a measurement of your project’s success)
Please list other cash funding, donated supplies or services and in-kind support that was provided for the project as listed on previous page.
|FVWC||NGO||$2305||Volunteer Services / coordination / labour / pizza for planting day crews / support letter preparation|
|CIB||NGO||$1150||Volunteer labour, monitoring, maintenance|
|VHHS||Municipality||$825||Volunteer Services / site coordination / labour / planting plan & placement|
|FVIPC||NGO||$550||Educational Materials / volunteer services / support letter preparation / invasive plant control consulting|
|Sts’ailes Aboriginal Title & Rights||Indian Band||$100||Advertising events in band newsletter / support letter preparation|
|MRSkS||NGO||$10512.20||Coordination, networking, web site design, labour, monitoring, maintenance|
|COS||BC Government||$50||Bear safety handouts|
|DFO||Federal Government||$112.50||Streamside Living Pamphlets|
|Friends of the Harrison Forest||NGO||$15||Support letter preparation|
|Harrison Day Care||Private Business||$187.50||Storm Drain Marking|
|PSF||NGO||$3038.63||Grant –Plants, Waders etc|
Please list anticipated funders that were not able to contribute, and reasons given. Although the Sts’ailes Aboriginal Title & Rights group encouraged band members to join in our activities none did. However it is a 45-minute trip by road from their side of the lake to the Harrison Hot Springs Village side.
I hereby declare that the information contained in the above financial statement submitted by us to PSF is accurate in all material respects. Any HST Input Tax Credit received or receivable by us has been declared in the budget portion of the Final Report and that the funds were used exclusively for the project as originally proposed or as formally amended by PSF.
_______________________ ____Janne Perrin___________ ___Chair____ __Aug.12, 2013_____
Signature Name Title Date
Please email a copy of your final report to
Mail one printed and signed Final Report, with receipts and documents to:
Pacific Salmon Foundation
300 -1682 West 7th Avenue
Please keep a complete copy for your records.
Riparian Areas are highly valuable ecosystems; their position in the landscape connects aquatic areas with terrestrial areas.
Native Trees and Shrubs:
Economic Value of Riparian Areas
When riparian areas are degraded there is a financial cost incurred by society to replace the lost ecological goods and services through:
Ecosystem Services we receive from Restoration of the Miami River Greenway: